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  • Production areas

    • Macadamias are grown along the eastern seaboard of New South Wales and Queensland, from Nambucca Heads in the south through to Mackay in the north.  About half of the Australian crop is produced in NSW and half in QLD.
    • Production is growing fastest in Bundaberg and Emerald in QLD and the Clarence Valley in NSW.
    • Ownership structures are diverse and comprise a combination of family-owned orchards, business ventures and investment company projects.  Many owners are first time farmers.

     

  • Current production

     

    • Area under macadamias is almost 19,000 ha.
    • Production for 2016 is forecast at 50,000 tonnes in-shell @10 moisture.  The kernel equivalent is approximately 16,700 tonnes.

     

  • Industry potential

    • The industry is still growing, with expansion in most growing regions.  Bundaberg is the fastest growing established region with new areas being developed in MacKay and Emerald in Queensland and the Clarence Valley in NSW.  Bundaberg became the single largest growing region in 2016.
    • There has recently been a resurgence in new plantings with almost 600,000 trees or 2,000 ha established in the last five years. There are currently around 6 million macadamia trees under cultivation; about a third of these are yet to reach full production.
    • By 2020 about 24,000 ha will be planted to macadamias with kernel production of around 19,500 tonnes. Export value is expected to exceed $300 million.
    • Global demand exceeds supply. Consumption is increasing as a result of increasing interested in healthy foods and an increasing awareness of the versatility of tree nuts. The biggest growth in demand is coming from Asia, where major city consumers in particular are focussed on health, convenience and new products.
    • The in-shell market has grown from almost nothing to a third of global consumption in 5 years and the kernel market remains strong globally.
    • Macadamias currently represent around 1.5% of the world trade in tree nuts. As awareness and production increase, the Australian Macadamia Society predicts continued growth in the industry.

     

  • Markets - present and future

    • Around 30% of Australian macadamias are sold in-shell, mainly to China where consumers favour in-shell product.  They are flavoured and cut to allow hand cracking with a key.
    • Approximately 70% of Australian macadamias are sold as kernel.  Kernel is processed for snack food lines and as an ingredient in confectionery, cereals, ice-cream and bakery products.  There is also a growing market for food oil and beauty products such moisturisers and hair care.
    • The domestic market consumes about 35% of total production, 90% of which is sold as kernel.
    •  Consumption of macadamias in their shell is increasing in China and this market is expected to grow significantly over the next five years,
    • 9,300 tonnes of kernel were exported in 2015 and around 11 tonnes in-shell. This represented about 70% of total industry production and had value of $220 million.
    • Asian markets are showing the greatest growth driven by increasing trade interest and consumer awareness. In the last few years market development campaigns have supported the product in China, Taiwan and Korea.
    • Promotion of health benefits is a support driver of demand and, combined with new market penetration, is expected to underpin further industry growth.

     

  • Competitive advantages

    • Macadamias are the only Australian native food plant to be widely traded internationally.
    • Australian farms and processors have high product standards, with a demonstrated capacity to produce superior kernel.
    • Through the Australian Government’s National Residue Survey the Australian macadamia industry can demonstrate 16 years of 100% compliance with all relevant standards.
    • There is a strong financial commitment to domestic and export market development and on-farm research funded by a compulsory grower levy on production. The industry spends about $2.2 million annually each on research and development and marketing.
    • Australia holds the only natural germplasm resources for macadamias, and has spent over $4 million over the last ten years on a comprehensive breeding program. Early indications are that yield increases of 30% are possible from new varieties.
    • The industry has a strong representative body, the Australian Macadamia Society, which is driving further industry and export development.

     

About Macadamias

 

By 2020 about 24,000 ha will be planted to macadamias with kernel production greater than

18,500 t. Export value will exceed $280 million.

 

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